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From Halal Food & Travel

Central Asia consists of Asia east of the Caspian Sea. The region has no exact boundaries, but is usually considered to include the former Soviet republics, and Afghanistan; also known as "the -stans".

Central Asia is a rugged, arid region, historically coveted for its position between Europe and East Asia with the legendary Silk Route, rather than for its resources, although petroleum, natural gas and mineral reserves have become more important in modern times. They are home to generally poor, primarily Muslim, historically nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking peoples (the exception is Tajikistan). All but Afghanistan, (which is sometimes categorized separately for this and other reasons) are former Soviet republics that so far have retained authoritarian, secular governments.


Map of Central Asia
One-time backpacker Shangri-La, but bloody (and ongoing) war, famine, and nightmare politics since the late 1970s have left it with considerably less appeal for Muslim travellers.
The world's largest landlocked nation is sparsely populated, dominated by archetypal Central Asian steppe, with deep reserves of fossil fuels, and pockets of beautiful wilderness for outdoors enthusiasts.
A truly beautiful country high in the mountains, and with the exception of the admittedly fascinating but unsafe Ferghana Valley, Central Asia's easiest and perhaps most pleasant place to visit.
Central Asia's poorest backwater truly is off the beaten path, but has some incredible landscapes and Persian culture nonetheless.
An amalgam of desert moonscapes and arid mountains, dotted with the ruins of great ancient civilizations, and ruled until 2006 by a post-Soviet lunatic cultivating one of the most bizarre cults of personality in history, this is off-the-beaten-path, difficult (courtesy of rotten officialdom), but potentially very rewarding travel.
With cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Tashkent, and other old Silk Road citadels, this country has way more than its fair share of culture and history. The people are warm and friendly and the country naturally is nothing short of beautiful. The government will go out of its way to complicate your trip, though.

In the context of cultural history, Iran, Mongolia, Western China (Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, western Sichuan and northwestern Yunnan), parts of Russia (Buryatia, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Tuva, Altai, Khakassia) and part of Kashmir in India and Pakistan are often also included.

Reference ##d5b66b Afghanistan Reference ##71b37b Kazakhstan Reference ##d5dc76 Kyrgyzstan Reference ##4da9c4 Tajikistan Reference ##b383b3 Turkmenistan Reference ##d56d76 Uzbekistan

Other Muslim friendly Cities in Central Asia

Al-Bukhari memorial complex, Samarkand Almaty — Kazakhstan's former capital is an infinitely more preferable destination than ad hoc Astana. Ashgabat — Turkmenistan's capital, with weird dictator monuments galore and natural gas wealth ostentation. Astana — Kazakhstan's dreary, cold northern capital. Bishkek — the leafy and drowsy capital of Kyrgyzstan. Bukhara — a 2,500-year-old Silk Road city in Uzbekistan and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Dushanbe — the sleepiest Central Asian capital by leagues in Tajikistan. Kabul — Afghanistan's capital and hub for, well, anyone who has to go to Afghanistan. Samarkand — another of Uzbekistan's world-famous 2,500-year-old Silk Road cities, and also another UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tashkent — Uzbekistan's capital, whose ages-old history lies below Soviet-era construction, and by far the region's largest city, at some 3 million.

Other Muslim Friendly Destinations in Central Asia

Cattle grazing next to ruins in Merv

  • Aral Sea — a post-apocalyptic ecological disaster area of a dead sea, filled with the empty husks of overturned rusting boats and seashells that once moved with life in this now dead region.
  • Band-e Amir — the breath-taking sight of five torquoise-blue lakes, connected by waterfalls, surrounded by barren wasteland in Afghanistan.
  • Chimbulak — Central Asia's most accessible ski resort (no helicopters needed), outside Almaty.
  • Darvaza— simultaneously Central Asia's strangest and most jaw-dropping attraction, the Gates of Hell is a vast flaming crater hundreds of miles from civilization in the middle of the inhospitable Karakarum Desert.
  • Issyk Kul — an absolutely gorgeous alpine lake, and perhaps Central Asia's most iconic natural wonder.
  • Merv — the most famous of Turkmenistan's many ruined medieval Silk Road cities.
  • Nissa — ruined Parthian fortresses comprising a UNESCO World Heritage site within easy striking distance of Ashgabat.
  • Zeravshan — a rugged and beautiful section of Tajikistan in the trekking and climbing-friendly Fan Mountains.

There are two regions that were historically important and are culturally coherent but today are divided among several countries:

Central Asia Halal Explorer

Gur-e Amir - Exterior views 998 Gur-e Amir, Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Central Asia is an area that was, until the late 20th century, inaccessible for independent travellers. That has all changed, although the traveller will still often come up against a wall of Soviet-style bureaucracy. Corruption is also an issue in most Central Asian countries. Despite this, Central Asia is increasing in popularity amongst travellers who want to experience one of the world's last great frontier lands.

History of Central Asia

See also: Persian Empire, Mongol Empire, Russian Empire, Soviet Union

Historically and geographically diverse, Central Asia is an interesting region. At one time large parts of it were part of the old Persian Empire. As a bridge between Europe and Asia, the region was the home of the Silk Road, the ancient trading route between the two continents in the first centuries of the common era. The following millennia saw much upheaval and conflict, from the expansion of Islam, the destructive Mongol invasion, and the expansion of the Russian Empire during Early Modern times, brought to a halt by the Great Game against the British Empire in the late 19th century.

All countries became part of the Soviet Union, except Afghanistan, which resisted a Soviet invasion throughout the 1980s, and has since then been in a series of civil wars. Many Soviet citizens (including Ukrainians and Koreans) settled in Central Asia's Soviet republics, with Baikonur as centre of the Soviet and Russian space program, and Semipalatinsk as a nuclear test site.

Population increase and modernization have taken its toll on the environment. Central Asia is dependent on a few water sources, some of which, especially the Aral Sea, are near depletion.

Some Central Asian countries are beginning to find their feet and offer good travelling options. There are parts of Central Asia that have hardly seen a traveller before, and there are many wild and beautiful landscapes to be explored. That is not to say the region is bereft of problems, chiefly a lack of infrastructure and stifling bureaucracy.

The People of Central Asia

Understand that self-identification is an especially touchy issue in Central Asia, more so than most of Europe. Parts of China (Notably Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang) have a native population that has in many instances advocated for secession from China. Often they emphasise their Central Asian identity, something not well-understood by outsiders. For example, Mongolians and Buryats tend to emphasise their historical ties with the Turkic Muslims to the West (despite being Mongolic Buddhists of the Tibetan Rite) and are offended by being compared to the Chinese, and some even call themselves Europeans (by virtue of Russian influence).

This situation is not unique to Mongolic peoples; Tibetans are well known in the Gulf countries for their disdain for China and any ties they may have to it. Many people in Tatarstan and Xinjiang, among other places, would emphasise their Turkicness over any connection to China or Russia.

The problem goes the other way as well. Many ethnic Chinese are quick to point out that the Manchu Empire included parts of Central Asia, including land no longer controlled by the Chinese.

All in all, Central Asian identity is greatly shaped by their nomadic nature. From Kyrgyz to Tibetans, a history of tribal politics have left Central Asia at once totally isolated from the outside world, and intimately connected to whoever conquered them.

Local Language in Central Asia

Much of Central Asia speaks a language from either the Iranic, Turkic and Mongolic language groups, often influencing each other.

A working knowledge of Russian will be useful in most regions described as Central Asian, since the majority of this area was once part of the Soviet Union.

How to travel to Central Asia

As mentioned above, the definition of "Central Asia" can be controversial. One reason why the one used on this page is useful, however, is visas.

All Central Asian countries except for Kyrgyzstan require visas for visitors from a lot of countries, and the difficulty of getting them may range from a minor hassle to virtually impossible if not on a tour or with a guide. Before issuing a visa, some countries will require a letter of invitation, often best obtained via a specialist travel agency. Some hotels will issue letters of invitation for confirmed reservations. Some nationalities may be excluded from the requirement to have one at all. Start working on your visas well in advance, as it may take weeks for the gears of bureaucracy to grind through your application, and make sure you comply with any local police/bureaucracy registration requirements after you've arrived.

What is the best way to fly to Central Asia

Manas International airport serves the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek The hub for the region is Tashkent, Uzbekistan, which has the most flights to destinations outside Central Asia. Unfortunately the airport also has a reputation for being unpleasant, and it is best to avoid flights which arrive here late at night.

There are also increasingly good options for flights to Almaty, Kazakhstan. You can fly here directly from London, Frankfurt, Beijing, Seoul, Moscow, Riga and various others.

Most Afghans and Pakistanis travel by air to Islamabad or Lahore and go by road to their final destinations.

To arrive in other Central Asia cities will generally require a transfer in one of these hubs. The cheapest flights from Europe in 2014 could be found to Osh starting at €400 for return flights.


From Russia

Astana -Saint Petersburg Trains going to Central Asia leave from Moscow Kazansky station. Trains go to Tashkent (56 hours/US$80), Almaty (78 hours/US$120), Bishkek (75 hours/US$70), Samarkand (85 hours/US$100), and others.

From China

There is a line from Urumqi, China to Almaty, but the bus is quicker. An interesting option is the challenging crossing from Kashgar, China to Kyrgyzstan through the Torugart Pass. This was a major link on the old Silk Road.

From Iran

The border is closed to Foreign Muslims, but there are buses running between Mashhad and Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

From Pakistan

Travelling to different areas of Pakistan is quite easy by train, bus or taxi. The route from there into Afghanistan via the Khyber Pass is not safe. The Karakoram Highway North into China is challenging but possible. It gets you to Kashgar; from there routes to Central Asia are either difficult (West to Bishkek) or long (swing North to Urumqi and then Almaty).

Book a Halal Cruise or Boat Tour in Central Asia

There is an irregular service between Baku, Azerbaijan and Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan.

How to get around in Central Asia

Getting between Central Asian countries is tricky. It used to be practically impossible to get into Turkmenistan. Get as many visas as you can before you leave. If not, make sure you're "stationed" in one and have time to deal with the bureaucracy at each embassy before you go.

What to see in Central Asia

Taldyk mountain pass in Kyrgyzstan, on the Silk Road The whole region is filled with steppes and mountains, beautiful scenery that has served as the backdrop for a half-dozen empires. Most tourists to the region arrive in one of the capitals and instantly book a tour of the mountains or countryside (especially in Kyrgyzstan).

The Western Tien-Shan mountain range in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is listed as a world heritage site.

Halal Tours and Excursions in Central Asia

The Trans-Siberian Railway passes a bit north of this area.

Top Muslim Travel Tips for Central Asia

With its vast nature and harsh seasonal differences, Central Asia is a challenging destination for outdoor life.

Shopping in Central Asia

Central Asia is a relatively affordable destination for GCC standards, but more expensive than e.g. Southeast Asia. A decent meal costs around US$5, a beer about US$1. A comfortable double room is about US$30-60. Expect to pay higher prices in the big cities.

Halal Restaurants & Food in Central Asia

Making of plov/pilaf, a dish common all around Central Asia and Caucasus The cuisine of the region has been influenced by the Russian cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisine and Chinese cuisine.

The further south you are, the more flavourful the cuisine is. Afghanistan and Tajikistan have far different cuisine than the Mongolic or Turkic cuisines, which are mostly hearty, spice-free, meaty fare.

All Central Asian countries are heavily carnivorous. There are local vegetarians in all Central Asian countries (even Afghanistan) but they are in the minority. This means while you can go without meat and survive, you will attract odd looks.

Except Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, alcohol is not uncommon to drink in Central Asia. However, tea still remains the region's favorite beverage. In some countries, green tea is customarily consumed all throughout the day.

The nightlife scene is almost nonexistent in Central Asia. While the region is not the world's number one destination for clubbing, the Russophone party culture ensures a good time in places like Bishkek, Almaty, and Tashkent.

Stay safe as a Muslim in Central Asia

Safety in Central Asia is a complex issue. While Afghanistan is notable for a high risk of kidnappings, terrorism, and Taliban resurgence, most other Central Asian countries risk riots after years of autocratic or near-autocratic government. Tibet and Xinjiang were engulfed by riots in 2008 and 2009, respectively, while Kyrgyzstan suffered through a violent revolution in 2010. In more stable areas, corruption and authority misconduct are more of a threat.

This is not to say that the entire region is a death trap. Most of the time, parts of the region are actually quite peaceful. But even then you may have some issues. Most likely for the tourist is having one's pocket picked. See each individual country for a more complete summary.

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